The dog was probably the first pet. Its domestication would result mainly from his innate tendency to live in packs under the conduct of a Chief, dog head or human. Today the breeds of dogs are numerous, highly polymorphic and constantly evolving.
When you want to define the origin of the domestic dog, it is difficult to find the thread linking all these races to a single ancestor. Dogs are part of the family canidae, of the order Carnivora and the Canis genus, such as the Wolf and the Jackal. The parent is so strong between these three species an ancient theory wanted than , especially from the North, are descended from the Wolf, and small, in particular those in Africa, the Jackal.
The format of the first domestic dogs would appear between these two species. Craniologiques, dental, neurological and biochemical similarities between the Jackal and the dog pushed Hilzheimer to the assumption that the common Jackal was the ancestor of the latter in 1908.
Konrad Lorenz said this theory partly: for him, the dog would have a mixed origin, with a bit of Wolf and essentially the blood of Golden Jackal, as it had been shown that crosses between these three species (Wolf, Jackal, dog) could give fertile products.
This theory was abandoned in 1985, favour a domestication of the dog from local wolves only. Dental, behavioral and anatomical similarities could also be highlighted between Eskimo dogs and some small Wolves of Asia.
The idea of Konrad Lorenz or Charles Darwin on a plurality of origins of the domestic dog was retained and adapted to the Wolf: this hypothesis seems now accepted by most ethologists. Just look at the diversity of dogs today to imagine they can descend from different ancestors and not one.
One of the first domestic dogs, the ‘bog dog’ (Canis palustris), ancestor of many breeds, descended from the wild dog of Europe. The greyhounds, them, would be related to wild dogs of Africa; their main representative is the big dog of Egypt’s antiquity, Canis celer.
The breed type, represented mainly by Cams molossus, the original Tibetan Mastiff, descended from the wild dog Indo-European, imported from Asia to Europe. For Petter, only two breeds of dogs, distinguished by their size, are highlighted by the archaeological sites: a big issue likely large Wolves of the North, which would have given the polar dogs and Shepherd dogs; and a smaller outcome of small Wolves of the India and the Middle East.
In the bronze age, different types of dogs is differentiated and might originally be existing groups:
-Canis familiaris palustris (dog of the bogs at the origin of the pet dogs and terriers in particular)
-Canis familiaris matris optimae (Shepherd Dog)
-Canis familiaris intermedius (dog regularly and stop)
-Canis familiaris spaletii (loulou)
-Canis familiaris inostranzewi (Nordic dog)
-Canis familiaris leineri (Greyhound; its varieties).
The origin of the dog simply shows that the man was always at his side in its evolution and that this association influence and creates a very particular communication system. One and one must understand and pay attention to the needs and requests of each.