Breeds of dogs “The Doberman”

Lively, strong, brave, watchful, it has a determined expression and even a little disturbing. It is a dog of strong, proud and impulsive, which must be stable, settled and sociable character. It is not a dog for any master. You need a firm, fair and quiet owner who can impose with patience and affection. Extremely faithful, highly dependent on the family, shows a blind devotion to his master.

It is a dog friendly and affectionate with children, but need the supervision of the parents that the Doberman tends to play with lot of energy due to their weight and muscles, and you can break down or hitting without wanting to and be able to do damage. It has an innate sense of protection and is very distrustful with strangers. This dog, essentially peaceful, is fragile from the emotional point of view and does not support the conflicting relations. You need a good socialization at all levels to promote their well-being and their emotional balance to a better life and optimize more friendly contact with humans and other animals.

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There are many theories as to the origin of this breed:
What is absolutely certain is Doberman comes from a cross between mixed dogs German Pinscher. These mixed dogs were the result of crosses between greyish blue females of dubious origin, and some dogs “black and Tan” whose origin was, in turn, the result of the cross between a dog Bernese mountain cowbird and a dog Shepherd. After these crosses, intervened in the formation of the race a Manchester terrier and a black female Greyhound. These arguments can be drawn contradiccione, as the same people are that discussed this, which claimed a relationship of blood between the Manchester terrier and the Doberman.

Possibly genetic studies might someday give more accurate information on the origin of the Doberman.
Also have been named as possible involved breeds: dog pastor of Beauce, Rottweiler and German Pointers.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
The Dobermann breed is Germany the only one to bear the name of its first known Maker: Friedrich Louis Dobermann (2 January, 1834, June 9, 1894). According to the story, he was tax collector, Manager of a trail, and also “bested”, with the legal right to catch all the dogs that were free. Parenting, he coupled especially teethers canine shelter dogs. “Butcher’s dogs” played the most important role in the formation of the breed Dobermann, which in those days were already seen as a race itself. These dogs were a type of the precursors of the current Rottweiler, mixed with a type of herding dog black pitted red oxide that was common in the region of Thuringia. With these mixes, Dobermann started his kennel in the 70s of the last century. In this way, the obtained “race” of dogs of utility, home and ranches, which were not only vigilant, but also very attached to the man. He used much as a protection dog and for the police. Its wide usefulness in the thriller service you gave at the time the name “gendarme dog”. Hunting him was mainly used for the extermination of the varmints.
By all the conditions previously expressed, was obvious case that the Dobermann is officially recognized as dog police at the beginning of this century. The Doberman breeding gave as a result a medium, strong and muscular, dog that despite all its substance allows to recognize elegance and nobility. It is ideal as a dog company, protection and utility.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:
Size medium, strong and muscular. The elegant lines of her body, the haughty attitude, the temperamental nature and the expression of a determined dog, correspond to the image of the ideal dog.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
The shape of your body is rather square, especially in males. The length of the trunk (measure from the shoulder joint to the iliac bumps) in relation to the height at the cross, should not exceed 5% in males and 10% in females.

COMPORTAMIENDO AND TEMPERAMENT (CHARACTER): Essentially friendly and peaceful. Highly dependent on the family and affectionate with children. Promotes it medium, in addition to a threshold of medium excitement a bravura and a temper. Because of their docility and joy for the work the Dobermann is characterized by his courage, hardness and capacity. With adequate care of their environment, are you can assess mainly for being very sure of himself and nothing scary.

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION:
Strong, adequate to its general appearance; seen from above, it presents an acute wedge; the transverse line of his Crown, seen from the front, must be almost horizontal, i.e. must not fall on the ears. The line between the parietal, which starts from the nasal helm, falls on the neck with a slight roundness.
The area of the eyebrows is well developed, but not Excel. The frontal furrow is visible. The occipital bone must not be too noticeable. Seen from above and against the sides of the head should not be very bulky. The slight lateral roundness of the maxilla and zygomatic arch must be in harmony with the total length of the head. The muscles of the head are heavily developed.
Stop: Frontonasal depression is mild, but it must be recognizable.

FACIAL REGION:
Nose: Well developed, more broad than round, with large holes, but without Excel. Black Dogs must be black in colour dogs coffee must be a color lighter.
Snout: It must be in correct relationship with the skull, well developed, deep. The mouth opening should reach almost the molars. It must also be sufficiently wide in the area of the upper incisors and lower.
Lips: They must be well tight and adherent to the jaws and show a rigid closure at the corners. Dark pigmentation; in brown dogs can be a little more clear.
Jaws, teeth: JAWS strong and wide, both the upper and the lower. Bite scissors with 42 pieces dental (according to tooth formula) of normal size.
Eyes: Oval and medium-sized, dark; a slightly more clear tonality in brown dogs are allowed. Well adherent eyelids. The corners have hair.
Ears: High implantation, they are lifted and cut to a length related to the head. In countries where aesthetic amputations are prohibited, full ears are valued in the same way (you want to have medium-sized with the previous Bank well attached to the cheek).

NECK:
In relation to the head and body, it has a good length. Compact and muscular. His line is upward and he bent position right, displaying gallantry.

BODY:
Cross: You must Excel in height and length, mainly in males, so the back show an upward trajectory since the rump.
Back: Short, hard, broad and well muscled.
Lomo:The lumbar region must be broad and well muscled. The females can have the lumbar region a little longer, as they will need that space during the gestation period.
Grupa: It forms a small decline from the sacrum and towards the implementation of the queue, not very noticeable, giving a rounded, not straight nor fall impression. Well wide, with strong muscles.
Chest:The length and depth of the chest must be linked to the length of the trunk, so that the depth of the chest (with slightly bulging ribs) is approaching half the height of the cross. The chest has good width and is very noticeable forward (backsplash).
Line of the abdomen: Since the end of the sternum to the pelvis, abdomen is clearly laid down.
Tail: High implantation, and amputated short, leaving two vertebrae visible. In countries where aesthetic amputations are prohibited, it can show the dog with the tail of normal length.

LIMBS

FORMER MEMBERS:
In general, seen from any angle, they must maintain straight, perpendicular to the ground, and strong structure.
Shoulders: The scapula presents well adherent to the ribs on both sides well muscled, and exceeding the upper vertebral spines. Preferably well inclined and backwards, forming an angle of 50 degrees with a horizontal line.
Arm: Good length, with good musculature, forming an angle with the scapula of 105 to 110 degrees.
Elbows: Well glued to the body, without being twisted outward.
Forearm: Strong and straight, good musculature. The length must be in harmony with the body.
Metacarpal joint: strong.
Metacarpus: Strong bones, seen from front: rectum, on the sides, with a small inclination (maximum 10 degrees).
Front feet:Short and closed. The fingers are rounded and upwards (CAT foot), nails short and black.

LATER MEMBERS:
In general, seen back and due to its good pelvic musculature and the rump, wide and rounded. The muscles that run from the plevis up to the thighs and legs resulting in that area of the thigh, knees and legs is well wide. The hindlimbs are strong and parallel position.
Thighs:Well widths and lengths, with strong muscles. Good angulation in the hip joint. Angle in relation to a horizontal line should be 80 to 85 degrees.
Knees:The articulation is strong, formed by the thigh, leg, and spherical. The angle must be 130 degrees.
Leg: Of medium length, in harmony with the limb.
Hocks:Moderately strong, parallel. Here join the bones of the leg with the metatarsus at an approximate angle of 140 degrees.
Tarsus: Short and perpendicular to the ground.
Rear feet:As well as in the front, the toes are short, rounded and closed; nails short and black.
Movement:It is of particular importance for its ability both to work as for his appearance. The movement is elastic, elegant, agile, free and spacious. The forelimbs are avalanzan as much as possible forward. Subsequent members give strong and necessary thrust achieving good distance. The forelimb of one side, and the later on the other side moving forward at the same time. Good stiffness in back and joints.

SKIN:
Throughout the body, the skin is well pigmented and tight.

FUR:
Characteristics of hair: It must be short, hard and dense, well glued and smooth, uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the body. Domestic fluff is not permitted.
Color:Black or dark brown with clean, well demarcated red rust marks. These marks are found on the snout, cheeks, eyebrows, throat, two spots on the chest, metacarpos, metatarsals and feet, part internal in the thighs, perineal region and iliácas bumps.

SIZE / WEIGHT

Size:Cross height: males 68 72 cm
Females 63 68 cm
In both cases you want to an intermediate measure

Weight: Males 40 45 kg
Females 32 35 kg

FAULTS:
Any deviation from the above criteria should be considered as a lack and the seriousness of this is considered in proportion to the extent of the deviation to the standard and its impact on the health and welfare of the dog.
• General appearance: absence of sexual character. Little substance, too light, too heavy, weak bones.
• Head: Too powerful; very thin, very short, very long. Very noticeable stop or almost inadvertible. Borrego nose. Parietal very fall line. Weak lower jaw, rounded or slanted eyes; eyes clear, too deep or bulging; too big cheeks, lips not acceding. -Set ears too high or too low. Angle of the open snout.
• Neck: Moderately or too short, with too much skin, or Chin. Neck of deer, too long (not harmonic).
• Body: Lack of hardness in the back, fall back, expired back, convex back; much or very little roundness of the ribs, depth or width of insufficient chest. Back too long in its entirety, absent dedge, tail of very high or very low implementation. Little or too picked up belly.
• Limbs: Too little or too much angulation of the anterior and posterior members, loose elbows; discrepancy in the position and length of bones and joints. To be standing, keep the legs close together or widely separated; cow limbs or abarriladas. Open and soft feet, crooked fingers, nail color-clear.
• Fur: Brands very clear, without good definition or cleaning, very dark mask, large limbs and dark spots. The brands of the chest almost imperceptible or too big. Long, smooth, dull or wavy, hair as well as alopécicas areas or with little hair. Large eddies in the body, visible internal fluff.
• Temperament: Not sure of itself, too temperamental, too much bravery, aggressiveness, arousal threshold too high or too low.
• Size: Anything other than the standard up by 2 cm is punishable.
• Movement: Vacilente, with trips, March and trote without freedom.

QUALIFYING OFFENCES:
• Character: Timidity, fear. Nervous or overly aggressive dogs.
• In general: investment of character sexual (males with female characters and vice versa).
• Eyes: Yellow (eye of the bird of prey), of different color (anisocromía).
• Teeth: Prognathism, bite of clip, enognatismo and incomplete tooth formula.
• Fur: White spots, hair white or wavy, very thin or with large alopécicas areas.
• Size: Disqualify dogs that measure more or less than two centimeters of the measure of the standard.

Any dog showing clear signs of physical abnormalities or behavior should be disqualified.

NOTE:
Exemplary males must have two testicles appear normal, fully descended in the scrotum.

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