The digestive system of dog
The dog’s digestive system includes the different organs involved in digestion,mouth to the anus,and digestive glands,the liver and pancreas.Food is crushed in the mouth by the teeth and saliva soaked before swallowing.The dog quickly swallows pieces big enough without much chewing.Salivary glands,many,secrete saliva,which acts by moistening and lubricating the food.
The enzymes in saliva begin the phenomenon of digestion of certain food components.The bolus then enters the pharynx,the crossroads of the respiratory and digestive tracts,and then into the esophagus to the stomach.The musculature of the esophagus allows the food in advance of its light,but it has no role in digestion.The dog’s stomach is small enough,its capacity is about one to two liters.But the stomach is an organ very expandable.The dog may swallow large amounts of food,his stomach will expand and her belly swell.
Glands of the stomach secrete enzymes extremely powerful,and acids can digest what the dog has swallowed.The musculature of the stomach aids in digestion and progression of food through the digestive tract to the small intestine.It measures about six times the length of the dog,more than three meters …It’s in the small intestine that empties bile secreted by liver and pancreatic juices.Throughout its length,the small intestine is dotted with glands aid in digestion.
Digestion is completed in the large intestine where feces are formed.In the large intestine are also synthesized many essential vitamins to the body.The rectum terminates the digestive tract.In this portion,the feces are stored until their expulsion.Two glands located on either side of the rectum,anal glands secrete a fatty product and smelly used to lubricate the passage of feces.The liver of the dog consists of four hepatic lobes.Liver functions are many and varied: synthesis of lipids,proteins,synthesis of urea,uric acid,synthesis of blood clotting agents.The liver serves as a reservoir for blood and vitamins,it is also the organ that destroys toxins.
Liver cells secrete bile which is stored in the gallbladder before emptying into the small intestine.Bile is primarily used to digest fats.The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which helps break down food thanks to the many enzymes it contains.The pancreas also secretes insulin and glucagon,hormones for regulating blood sugar.
The cardiovascular system
The dog’s heart works like a pump that distributes blood throughout the body through the arteries and veins.The heart has two atria and two ventricles.The left heart and right heart do not communicate,except in certain pathological cases.The oxygen-rich blood wins,through blood,body organs.Oxygen is used by cells of all organs for energy.The blood becomes depleted of oxygen and enriched in carbon dioxide.
Intravenously,the blood returns to the lungs to remove carbon dioxide and replenish oxygen,and so every second of life,from birth to death.What a wonderful machine that heart beating regularly by adapting to the needs of the organization throughout the dog’s life! When the dog makes an effort,oxygen requirements increase muscle,and heart adapts by increasing heart rate.At rest,the needs diminish,and slows the heart through a complex system of regulation of the heartbeat.
Heart rate also varies with age of the dog,its physiological condition and size.It was noted,in most small dogs,a heart rate above average.Cardiac abnormalities exist birth to puppies.They will be detected at the first visit to the vet,for example when the first vaccine.To examine the heart,the veterinarian uses a stethoscope to detect abnormal noise,also called a heart murmur.Radiography,ultrasound and electrocardiogram are used to clarify the diagnosis.