Each breed of dog has different, specific and well-defined, characteristics which make a subject more or less “typical”, i.e. more or less close to the ideal of his race, and in good health. This is why one cannot speak of a physical examination which may be valid for all puppies, to speak of aesthetic canons.
However, may examine any puppy in view of its health – or to be exact “well-being” at that moment, because it is not a medical visit! -by analyzing several factors that are almost identical for all races.
1. Eyes of the puppy must be happy, lively, and above all, own. Too abundant tears secretion is always bad sign. If it is fresh, it can be a symptom of irritation (conjunctivitis); If it is dry, it is even more alarming because it can be sign of distemper.
Attention: If one of the puppies has the symptoms of a serious infectious disease, it is not enough to keep this subject. There is indeed likely that infection is propagated to all of the puppies and the dog (perhaps because it is the lowest) that is the first to show signs.
2. The inside of the ears of the puppy must be clean and odourless. A powerful smell can signal the presence of mites (ear rogne).
3. The mucous membranes of the puppy must be well pigmented (black); until the age of three months however, pigmentation may be incomplete. A few small pink spots among the very young puppy are not alarming; If this should persist after the age of three to four months, on the other hand, it would also constitute a default.
4. The puppy shows still its milk teeth, not final, and cannot therefore not yet know if it will be full. However you can already see if prognathous closing is correct.
5. The puppy perianal area must be clean. The yellowish spots around the vent are sign of diarrhea and, therefore, intestinal problems or indicate the presence of parasites.
6. At the age of two or more months, the male puppy must have two testes well descended into the scrotum: they are not always visible, but you can feel by palpation. The absence of a testis (monorchidie) or two (cryptorchidism) is a serious problem which excludes the dog exhibitions and breeding: thus, if the puppy is not yet perfect at this level here, should postpone the purchase.
As well as hereditary, and thus transmitted to his offspring, this defect can have consequences for the dog himself: indeed, the testis in the abdomen, subjected to excessive heat, can degenerate into tumor and must be removed by surgery.
7. If theabdomen of the puppy is stretched or swollen, it can indicate the presence of intestinal parasites. Attention: if he comes to eat, a puppy in good health can be stretched and swollen belly. In this case, it must be observed again a few hours later. The belly shall be smooth and pink and have pustules, or redness.
8. Hair of the dog must be brilliant and almost odourless (apart from the “smell of layer” normal). The presence of one or two chips must not to worry: it is almost impossible to eliminate all in scope, especially in farming. A serious infestation, in contrast, is a sign of a bad general State of farming himself.