Changes and effects of the domestication of the dog

By familiar, we mean the dog recognized as a member of the family with a role to play in the system in which he is involved. The dog is looked at with his emotional life, his affects, his thoughts… A specific communication system will be put in place and take into account the ‘personality’ of the dog.

The dog has the ability to double impregnation which takes place in the time interval that corresponds to the sensitive period. Thus, the puppy put in the presence of the man before the sixth week of age come into contact easily with the latter and will develop an attachment during repeated contacts. The puppy will then be able to soak up to humans unless it has entered into a commitment with a particular human.

domestication of the dog

Attachment to the mother and siblings on the one hand and the man on the other hand is the basis for the development of social relations. The necessary proximity to attachment figures allows the puppy to observe and then to mimic social behavior alteration. He thus learns a number of social rituals, basis of a healthy social communication. This position of pet is therefore essential from a simple pet.

We must keep in mind the specificities of communication of each for a good relationship and resist the urge to do one with her pet. This is in recognition of the difference that the identity of each will be recognized.

The pets are pets. The fundamental difference between the livestock and pets is the concept of territoriality. Herbivores are not attached to a territory. They remain only if the food is sufficient, otherwise they move. These animals tolerate a high concentration inside their living space as long as the food is sufficient.

Carnivores like the man are territorial animals, they need a defined territory where the inputs are controlled by a system of signals and marking. This territory is comprised of several areas focused on a central area which the entrance is permitted only to «dominants». There is then an intermediate zone which includes other males that the dominant and finally the area more remote which contains marginal individuals and adolescent males.

These territorial animals do therefore not easily bear promiscuity with other congeners. This specificity is fundamental to the establishment of a communication respecting the position of each. Carnivores feed is called “Catholic”, i.e. close to our supply.

The animals have no fixed constraints at the level of sexual behavior and maternal behaviour. It does not exist in these animals of the permanent torque links. While wolves, we know that the couple in a pack is a stable couple. In addition, there are dogs of preferences in the choice of their partner.

With regard to the mother-young links, they are very strong in carnivores. It is very difficult to separate a dog of her unweaned puppies. On the other hand, it is quite simple to separate piglets from a sow or make him adopt. The family of carnivores is quite similar to that of men with a couple formed according to individual preferences and a developed maternal fiber, similarities, without confusing the man and the dog, to establish a quite developed communication system.

Dogs have a strong tendency to obey a dominant animal, which will allow the coordination of activities in the Pack. It will also facilitate the integration in a family when adopting a dog.

Domestication leads to an earlier development of the endocrine glands related to reproduction. Thus sexual maturity appears between 6 to 12 months in the bitch and around 2 years at the she-Wolf. In addition, dogs have a greater reproductive capacity: the bitch has two periods of heat per year while the Wolf has only one.

The behavior of predation consists of several successive phases: the approach, the capture, killing, preparation and ingestion. This succession of sequences is incomplete in dogs. Among the various breeds of dogs, observed the removal of some elements, for example the fatal bite is completely inhibited. However other sequences of the predation behavior intensified. Thus, the Border Collie presents only the first part of the predatory sequence: observation, approach and pursuit. The retrievers, they make the report and seen in dogs of blood tracking sequence intensify.

But the main feature which distinguishes the wild animals of their domestic equivalents is the persistence of childhood behaviour. Thus, respect of dominant and obedience to the head are present in the pup and adult dogs while the adult Wolf will more easily tend to restore the power of the dominant subject. This phenomenon is very important in the relationship between man and his dog and the communication system that will settle.

Domestication leads a dependency to the most important man. More dependency is high, more training capacity increases. It will be easier to train a dog for approval as a Malamute. The study of Genaro on wolves in Europe, poodle and hybrids shows that this difference is linked to the early development of a reaction of fear in the Wolf which prevents the secondary socialization of the Wolf with other species. This reaction of fear is overcome if the Wolf is separated from its congeners and accustomed to the breeder.

In dogs, this behavior of fright at other species is late, only in the second part of the socialization period. In all cases, well socialized, a wolf is much more risk than a dog to be aggressive towards humans. More capacity to link social relationships with other species are more important and persist for longer than in other Canids.

The main developments and consequences of the domestication of the dog are these transformations behavioural and morphological, vectors of the onset of multiple races. To domesticate dogs, man has had to learn to master the techniques of its power and its reproduction, to control its environment and its evolution. It has developed powerful resources for action on the dog: in the nourishing, it drew him. by crossing or by selecting it, he changed it; bringing together individuals of same species but of different variety, ignoring barriers geographical, morphological or behavioral, human has accelerated the process of natural evolution and created new breeds.

He also “studied” the behavior of the dog, perhaps unconsciously, he has noted, has learned to know and therefore established a very specific relationship system, integrating a knowledge of the dog and its reactions. The dog therefore lost its capabilities initiative and adaptation, as well as plenty of character fundamental to survival and to its wild ancestors. He has also had to change his behavioral patterns, and approached his master. Communication with the man has adapted to his new situation.

Feeding behaviour has also changed: the Wolf, as the man, killed prey. the dog has lost power to the game, and its predation behavior is altered, with in particular the disappearance of its ability to carry a deadly bite; It became omnivorous as his master, and her eating habits became closely linked to those of the human. The effect is a reinforcement of the hierarchical aspects around meals. The dog adapted better, became more docile, which strengthened the bond of affection and subordination that unit to his master. In particular, a relationship such as uniting the puppy to his mother remains between them.

This translates the persistence of childhood behaviour in adulthood, with result:
-Firstly, a change of sexual behavior. The relationship among congeners is more close to couple.
-on the other hand, a modification of the morphological appearance, with the persistence of characters ‘childish ‘.

Human has so shaped the dog in his image, and the dog has adapted by changing its hierarchical organization and its social behavior around his new master. Their relationship has therefore gradually turned: by raising the dog, man created close ties of those it maintains with its similar, speaking in the form of feelings passionate for the animal. Similarly changes in appearance and behaviour favored anthropomorphic reactions, resulting in the assimilation of the dog to a child, especially since the man favoured such a type of dog breeding.

The dog gradually integrated in the family and has therefore seen its place and status change: thus of commensal (sharing of food), the dog became a pet and a pet, to eventually enter into a relationship of intimacy of close contact with the man. Domestication has a very close relationship between man and his dog but this link, so strong is he should not abolish the differences and specificities of each.

Communication can take different paths but leading to the same place. The first step in communication with his dog is education, in accordance with the capabilities of each. Education is an integral part of communication, is that by educating your dog that he can understand you.