It is often the children who are victimized. The bites are the result of behavioural interactions between the child and the dog.
And after a study it would annually 200 bites per 100,000 in France. In Lyon, a survey of pet owners reveals a much higher annual rate: around 6,000 bites per 100,000 persons, most of the victims as part of the family.
Hospital statistics show that dog bites are 0.5 to 1% of all consultations in surgical emergency services. The hospital is rarely indicated and linked to the need for an exploration of the wound under general anesthesia.
The majority of bites are benign, but some of them are very serious. These include the aesthetic legacy to the face; Indeed, the face is affected in 75-85% of the cases (lips, cheeks, nose, eyelids).
The age of addicts children has been well studied. There are two peaks of frequency, one between 1 and 4 years, between 11 and 13 years old. More than 50% of all bites occur between 0 and 18 years, with a sharp enough predominance for the male.
The association “child-big puppy” is a pejorative factor in the frequency and severity of bites. Big dogs, including German shepherds, are the most cited in statistics but this accusation of particular aggressiveness should be tempered because the bastards are often included in this category. It should be noted also that big dog bites lead to more consultations than those caused by small animals, due to the more severe lesions in relation to the size and strength of the jaws.
Action to be taken before a dog bite
A dog bite is always full of microbes because canine dental flora includes many anaerobic Clostridium perfringens and tetani, streptococci and Pasteurella germs.
The owner of the dog shall provide emergency book of vaccination of the animal which veterinary workplace monitoring is mandatory (Ministerial Decree of May 1, 1976), at the expense of the master. If it refuses to comply, a complaint must be filed at the town hall or the gendarmerie. The animal must undergo three successive exams in two weeks. If it is normal to the 5th day, the likelihood of a rage becomes low.
Examination of the wound occurs while cleaning with SOAP and water compresses. The disinfection of the wound then requires the wide application of antiseptics (choice: peroxide, Betadine, Mercryl, Hibitane, or diluted bleach water, these products should not be mixed together). There should be a clear wound without debris or dirt or decayed zones.
Any bite is contaminated by anaerobic bacterial flora, the early suture is deprecated, except for the face. The surgeons are developing on the wide open left wound a fatty dressing renewed every day (Biogaze, Antibiotulle, etc.). If after 3 days, the banks of the bite remain healthy and uninfected, a suture is performed.
Prevention against tetanus is based on the recall of tetanus vaccine and tetanus gamma globulins. Rabies remains problem. In the case of deep bite at the level of the face or when the dog disappeared, the child should be directed to one of the 60 rabies treatment centres for there be vaccinated within a period of 48 to 72 hours.
The Protocol to 4 or 6 injections is undertaken the slightest doubt. In the event of serious, multiple or deep bite on the level of the face or extremities, specific immunoglobulins of human origin are injected as additional on that day.
The bulk of the surgical problems posed by childhood dog bites is the artist insofar as it is a skin aggression, which pose immediate problems septic and closing long-term healing and, ultimately, aesthetic, with possible times plastic surgery to the face.
The rabies can occur either bite or contact with virulent saliva on a wound or a skin excoriation. After contamination, it is necessary:
1 Ensure first aid
-thoroughly wash the wound with SOAP and water
-do not suture
-practice a booster tetanus vaccination
2 Find and isolate the responsible for animal
If the animal has been free of rabies, the processing is not undertaken. Accordingly, to the extent possible, should capture the animal without bringing it down. Possibly appeal to the police station, the mounted police or firefighters (Decree of authorization for the pickup legal intervention (or capture) animals rabid or suspected rabies by police forces, no. 76.867 of 13-9-76, published in the Official Journal of 14-9-76, page 5517, article 9, the application of which depends on the order of 1-10-76, published in the Official Gazette of 7-1-77, page 195).
Contact the animal to a veterinarian not to get bitten and protecting the saliva. If the animal must be slaughtered, meet the skull. If possible the head in a bin refrigerated (temperature between 4 to 10 ° C without freezing).